Dependent & Independent Clause dan Passive Voice

DEPENDENT & INDEPENDENT CLAUSE

A. Adjective Clauses

Adjective Clauses (klausa penjelas kata benda) yaitu suatu klausa yang berfungsi sebagai kata sifat penjelas kata benda dalam kalimat majemuk. klausa ajektif memberikan atau menambah keterangan pada kata ganti, kata benda atau kelompok kata benda. klausa ajektif untuk menerangkan orang biasanya diawali dengan relative clause who, whom/whose sedangkan untuk benda dan binatang which, that atau whose.

1. Non-defening Adjective Clause

a. who : menggantikan subjek orang

b. Whom : menggantikan objek orang

c. Whose : menggantikan possesive objek orang

d. Which : menggantikan subjek benda

e. Which : menggantikan objek benda

f. Whose : menggantikan possive adjective benda

2. Defining Adjective Clause

a. Which, that : menggantikan objek benda

b. what, that : menggantikan subjek kata benda

c. who, that : menggantikan subjek orang

d. who,that : menggantikan objek orang

B. Adverb Clauses

Adverb clauses adalah klausa terikat yang berfungsi sebagai adverb dalam kalimat majemuk. jadi dapat menggatikan adverb dalam kalimat tunggal. adverb clause mempunyai banyak ragam seperti halnya adverb (kata keterangan) yaitu :

a. adverb clause of time / anak kalimat pengganti keterangan waktu

adverbial clause of place diawali dengan konjungsi after, before, when, as, as soon as, until, while.

b. adverbial clause of place/anak kalimat pengganti keterangan tempat

c. adverbial clause of reason / anak kalimat pengganti sebab akibat

d. adverbial clause of purpose / anak kalimat penganti keterangan tujuan

e. adverbial clause of concession

f. adverbial clause of condition

C. Noun Clause

naun clause dalam kalimat menduduki fungsi kata benda. jadi dapat sebagai subjek, objek ataupun pelengkap

a. sebagai objek

contoh: the students have to do what their teacher assigned them

the principal gave whoever got the best marks a present

b. sebagai pelengkap

contoh : this is where i work

c. sebagai subjek

contoh : what he decided maked the members happy

where she went was not certain

PASSIVE VOICE

A. Pengantar

pola dasar kalimat pasif adalah to be + V3. adapun bentuk to be berubah-ubah sesuai dengan tensesnya yaitu : is, am, are, was, being, be, been atau to be itu sendiri.

B. Perubahan kalimat aktif menjadi kalimat pasif

a. present

active, contoh : 1. she washes her dresses

2. she is washing her dresses

3. she has washed her dresses

passive, contoh : 1. her dresses are washed

2. her dresses are being washed

3. her dresses have been washed

Future

active, contoh :  she will wash her dresses

passive, contoh : her dresses will be washed

Past

active, contoh : 1. she washed her dresses

2. she was washing her dresses

3. she had washed her dresses

Passive, contoh : 1. her dresses were washed

2. her dresses were being washed

3. her dresses have been washed

C. kalimat pasif menggunakan impersonal it

kata kerja say, think, blieve, consider, suppose, know dalam kalimat pasif menggunakan impersonal it.

contoh :

active : People say that we have made much progress

passive : it is said that we have made much progress

D. Bentuk erund mengandung arti pasif

kata-kata seperti need, want, require dan worth diikuti gerund namun bermakna pasif.

contoh : the letter needs stamping = the letter needs to be stamped.

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