Tenses dan Conditional Sentences

A. TENSES

Tenses adalah perubahan bentuk kata kerja dalam kalimat yang berhubungan dengan waktu atau saat kejadian. secara lengkap terdapat 16 macam tenses dalam bahasa inggris, namun yang sering digunakan hanya 12 macam yakni :

1. Present

a. Simple Present Tense

My father always reads a newspaper everyday

They usually go to for a picnic on Sunday

b. Present Continuous Tense

The children are still playing now

She is teaching English and learning French this year

c. present perfect Tense

I have not met you for a month

John has written a number of short stories since he was fifteen.

d. Present Perfect Continuous Tense

She has been waiting for the bus for an hour now

My brother Has been working hard for the last two months

2. Past

1. Simple Past Tense

She alwesy carried her umbrella last season.

they went to surabaya last week

2. Past Continuous Tense

they were talking to their guests when the room fell in.

as she was having breakfast the phone rang

3. Past perfect Tense

they went home after they had finished their work.

the sun had set down before I was ready to go

4. past perfect Continuous Tense

she had been waiting for the bus for an hour now

my brother had been working hard for the last two months

3. Future

1. Future Tense

the examination will start next week

she will come to our house tomorrow

2. Future Continuous Tense

I will be watching television when you visit me at eight tonight

I will be picking fruit when you arrive

3. Future Perfect Tense

the mechanic will have worked for the car before the race starts

by the eand of this week he will have finished writing his second novel

4. Future Perfect Continuous

by next month he will have been studying english for six years

by the end of this year rudy will have been living in yogya for three years.

CONDITIONAL SENTENCES

kalimat pengadaian terdiri dari dua klausa yaitu main clause (klausa induk) dan subclause (klausa anak). pada Subclause biasanya menggunakan konjungsi if (jika), provided that )asalkan), on condition that (dengan syarat), atau unless (kecuali). anak kalimat dapat mendahului induk kalimat atau sebagainya. pada umumnya kalimat pengadaian dibedakan menjadi 3 tipe yaitu : future conditional sentences, present conditional, dan past conditional sentences.

a. Future conditional sentence (bentuk kalimat pengadaian waktu yang akan datang).

kalimat pengadaian ini digunakan untuk mengadaikan sesuatu yang belum terjadi pada waktu sekarang, sehingga mungkin terjadi atau tidak terjadi di waktu yang akan datang dan akan terjadi bila syaratnya (if-clause) terpenuhi.

contoh :

1. we will go for a swim if the weather is fine

(It means that we may go for a swim, the weather may be fine)

2. if Susi invites me, I will attend the party next sunday.

(there is possibility for me to attend the party next sunday)

b. Present Conditional Sentence (bentuk kalimat pengadaian waktu sekarang).

kalimat pengadaian ini digunakan untuk mengadaikan sesuatu yang bertentangan dengan fakta pada waktu sekarang sehingga tidak mungkin terjadi atau kemungkinan kecil terjadi pada waktu sekarang.

contoh :

1. I Would give her the money if she were poor

(It means that I do not give the mony because she is rich)

2. you could not go to her house if you (did not know) her address

(it means that you can go to her house because you know her address)

c. Past Condiional Sentence (bentuk kaliat pengandaian waktu lampau).

kalimat pengadaian ini digunakan untuk mengadaikan sesuatu yang bertentangan dengan fakta pada waktu lampau sehingga tidak mungkin terjadi pada waktu lampau.

contoh :

1. They could have gone for a swim if the weather had been fine.

(it means tat they could not go for a swim since the weather was bed)

2. if he had stayed longer, he would have met desy.

(if means that he did not stay longer that is why he did not meet her)

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